Waltzing Matilda, lyrics written 1895 in Australia, the title is not related to a dance and not related to a woman. Matilda was a name for a bag on the back of wandering shepherds. The lyrics are related to a sheep-shearer, who was a protester vs bad working conditions. During the protest a barn was burned, some sheep were killed. The protester Samuel Hoffmeister was accused, but he said he was not guilty and made suicide beneath his favorite water hole – where he usually ate some stolen sheep.
Maybe you have interest to read more at wikipedia: the complete lyrics are there too. The song became a kind of second national anthem in Australia, was used for the opening of Olympic games, soundtrack for the female soccer team (the Matildas) or was used supporting the outsending of Australian troops vs Iraq etc. In Australia the whole audience knows the lyrics by heart – otherwise the composition was performed in non-political situations by Rod Stewart, Tom Waits, Tommy Emmanuel, The Seekers, Dire Straits etc.